A Message From Lucianne  







S-G1




























ST-GC



        
 

 
Home Page | Latest Posts | Links | Must Reads | Update Profile | RSS | Contribute | Register | Rules & FAQs
Privacy Policy | Search | Post | Contact | Logout | Forgot Password | Search Using Google


  Topic: Climate Change May
Increase Volcanic Eruptions
Change your user profile.
If you are having trouble posting, please take the time to register.
Your User Name :
Your Password
  I forgot my password
Your Reply  :
Preview Reply     Post Reply
Climate Change May
Increase Volcanic Eruptions

LiveScience, by Tia Ghose

Original Article

Posted By:NorthernDog, 1/4/2013 7:52:46 AM

The rapid rise in sea levels could cause a dramatic increase in volcanic eruptions, according to a new study. The study, published in the journal Geology, found that during periods of rapid climate change over the last million years, the rapid melting of continental glaciers and the resulting sea-level rise eventually increased volcanic eruptions as much as fold. "Everybody knows that volcanoes have an impact on climate," said study co-author Marion Jegen, a geophysicist at Geomar in Germany. "What we found was just the opposite." The findings were based only on natural changes in climate, so it´s not clear

Comments:
Yeah, sure. Global warming also causes liver spots on my dog´s belly, Low-T in men, squirrels to invade the bird feeder, and IQ´s of Leftists to drop an average of 30 points.

      


Post Reply  

Reply 1 - Posted by: Rather Read, 1/4/2013 8:06:45 AM     (No. 9097872)

Oh brother! Next thing they´ll say is that we must bring back human sacrifices to appease Mother Gaia.

  Click Here if you Like this Comment

    3 persons like this.


Reply 2 - Posted by: mitzi, 1/4/2013 8:07:40 AM     (No. 9097873)

The study doesn´t address whether modern-day climate change would have any impact on the frequency of volcanic eruptions, though in theory it´s possible, Jegen said.

Theories are fun ...

  Click Here if you Like this Comment

   1  person like this.


   

 

R-G1
  
R-VAR_AD


 
Reply 3 - Posted by: VinGoombatz, 1/4/2013 8:10:25 AM     (No. 9097877)

...learned long ago that any scientific/medical article with "may" "might" or "could" in the title is to be passed by quickly.

  Click Here if you Like this Comment

   1  person like this.


Reply 4 - Posted by: Catherine, 1/4/2013 8:12:32 AM     (No. 9097879)

Don´t remember if it was the History channel or Nat´l Geographic but I watched a report on what´s inside this planet. Thousands of miles down filled with rock, lava, diamonds, and all sorts of stuff I never heard of before. There is no way anyone on planet earth will ever, ever! do anything to affect the earth´s core.

  Click Here if you Like this Comment

   1  person like this.


Reply 5 - Posted by: noproblems, 1/4/2013 8:21:30 AM     (No. 9097897)

news flash: self-importance and arrogance may effect your theories.

  Click Here if you Like this Comment

    2 persons like this.


Reply 6 - Posted by: LAW428, 1/4/2013 8:22:09 AM     (No. 9097900)

What "rapid rise in sea levels?" I have heard of no coastal flooding. The sky-is-falling doomsday weather predictions, based on faux climate change, are becoming laughable.

  Click Here if you Like this Comment

    3 persons like this.


Reply 7 - Posted by: varkdriver, 1/4/2013 8:30:40 AM     (No. 9097918)

#3: In a related story, Salma Hayek ´may´ someday return one of my many phone calls...

  Click Here if you Like this Comment

   1  person like this.


   

 

  


 
Reply 8 - Posted by: JackBurton, 1/4/2013 8:33:44 AM     (No. 9097930)

Warm or cool... the water, pressing down on the hot guts of the Earth from whence come the volcanic mag-ma (doing my best Dr. Evil),...

...weighs the same. So how is *warm* water any more of a problem than *cool* water?

  Click Here if you Like this Comment

   1  person like this.


Reply 9 - Posted by: antiquegolf, 1/4/2013 8:34:52 AM     (No. 9097933)

Look out for "new studies," especially if carried out by liberals. They specialize in lies published to further their agenda. What´s more, liberals predetermined outcome studies are typically funded with taxpayer money.

  Click Here if you Like this Comment

    2 persons like this.


Reply 10 - Posted by: AisA, 1/4/2013 8:39:03 AM     (No. 9097941)

How about volcanic activity changes the earth´s climate?

Just a thought for study...

  Click Here if you Like this Comment

   1  person like this.


Reply 11 - Posted by: lifelonghuman, 1/4/2013 8:40:00 AM     (No. 9097945)

It´s so much more fun nowadays, since the scientific community adopted a new scientific method.

Skip these:
?Ask a Question
?Do Background Research
Be inventive:
?Construct a Hypothesis
Get a consensus to avoid testing:
?Test Your Hypothesis with an Experiment
Save time with just the "Draw" part
?Analyze Your Data and Draw a Conclusion
Join the consensus; Do talk shows: Get grant
?Communicate Your Results


  Click Here if you Like this Comment

   1  person like this.


Reply 12 - Posted by: harleynyc, 1/4/2013 8:42:06 AM     (No. 9097951)

Wouldn´t global warming cause massive water evaporation, resulting in rain clouds to cover the planet ? That´s good, cause this pretzels are making me thirsty.

  Click Here if you Like this Comment

   1  person like this.


   

 

B-G1


 
Reply 13 - Posted by: owl, 1/4/2013 8:46:48 AM     (No. 9097960)

lol , too good . I´ve heard earthquakes have intensified too . That´s why Ca. has been cracking down on emissions the way it has .

  Click Here if you Like this Comment

   1  person like this.


Reply 14 - Posted by: mominNoCA, 1/4/2013 8:46:52 AM     (No. 9097961)

I´ve noticed that lefties have been trying to tie climate "change" in with plate tectonics since the ´04 tsunami in the Indian Ocean. With enough years and enough dumbing-down of the populace, they´ll succeed.

  Click Here if you Like this Comment

   1  person like this.


Reply 15 - Posted by: mickturn, 1/4/2013 8:48:43 AM     (No. 9097968)

Yes, and climate change causes stupidity in Liberals...so what else is new?

  Click Here if you Like this Comment

   1  person like this.


Reply 16 - Posted by: Bur Oak, 1/4/2013 8:53:04 AM     (No. 9097978)

Grant money causes climate change theories.

  Click Here if you Like this Comment

    2 persons like this.


Reply 17 - Posted by: Topic Thunder, 1/4/2013 8:55:20 AM     (No. 9097986)

Yet another brilliant scientific study from the Josef Mengele Institute for Research.

  Click Here if you Like this Comment

    2 persons like this.


   

 

R_DBL_B
  


 
Reply 18 - Posted by: cgood, 1/4/2013 8:57:39 AM     (No. 9097989)

How convenient. These scientists state that the effects of ´man-made climate change´ won´t be evident for about 2500 years. Nevertheless, we must take action NOW. I think they publish this junk just to create opportunities to chastise ´deniers´.

  Click Here if you Like this Comment

   1  person like this.


Reply 19 - Posted by: DocH, 1/4/2013 9:02:02 AM     (No. 9098000)

Somebody needs to point out that sea levels have been rising (slowly) for thousands of years, and the current rate is the same as the historic rate. The faster rate is a "projection" based on "models." Enuff said.

  Click Here if you Like this Comment

   1  person like this.


Reply 20 - Posted by: GOPJihad, 1/4/2013 9:02:48 AM     (No. 9098003)

Tail May Wag The Dog

  Click Here if you Like this Comment

   1  person like this.


Reply 21 - Posted by: mindyourbubble, 1/4/2013 9:02:50 AM     (No. 9098004)

This article in many ways fits the adage,"give a someone,(say scientists)a FACT and you will get thousands of theories to fit the fact. HUH? Also fta,"...it increases volcanic eruptions-----fold" Whats a fold? it is a multiplier. So how many "fold"? 2 or 2000 or what? Bah. So if some one is worried about it, go stick a cork in the craters. Yea, that´s the ticket.

  Click Here if you Like this Comment

   1  person like this.


Reply 22 - Posted by: Whamdbambam, 1/4/2013 9:07:37 AM     (No. 9098016)

I have a prediction: "Climate change" will cause a very bright comet to appear in the heavens next December. This will be a sign to the moonbats that the world is about to end.

  Click Here if you Like this Comment

    2 persons like this.


   

 



 
Reply 23 - Posted by: King of all trolls, 1/4/2013 9:15:25 AM     (No. 9098039)

Think of how much climate we could "save" if they stopped printing this garbage.

  Click Here if you Like this Comment

   1  person like this.


Reply 24 - Posted by: King of all trolls, 1/4/2013 9:17:42 AM     (No. 9098051)

Looks like Geologists have finally figured out how to cash in on climatechange. Definitely below the curve.

  Click Here if you Like this Comment

    2 persons like this.


Reply 25 - Posted by: formerNYer, 1/4/2013 9:44:37 AM     (No. 9098104)

ZZZzzzzzzzz

  Click Here if you Like this Comment

    2 persons like this.


Reply 26 - Posted by: dirtydave, 1/4/2013 9:48:29 AM     (No. 9098115)

Yawn.

  Click Here if you Like this Comment

   1  person like this.


Reply 27 - Posted by: Salt5792, 1/4/2013 9:50:37 AM     (No. 9098118)

It´s Bush´s fault. /s

  Click Here if you Like this Comment

   1  person like this.


Reply 28 - Posted by: Rumblehog, 1/4/2013 10:03:08 AM     (No. 9098145)

Hmmm, but not the other way around?

  Click Here if you Like this Comment

    2 persons like this.


Reply 29 - Posted by: billp, 1/4/2013 10:33:06 AM     (No. 9098223)

#1, the ´human sacrifices´ will commence just as soon as they´ve collected-up all the firearms.

  Click Here if you Like this Comment

   1  person like this.


Reply 30 - Posted by: stablemoney, 1/4/2013 10:36:40 AM     (No. 9098231)

"Scientists" today went to Obama schools, played video games, and watched Obama tv, resulting in no training for the task, and Obama conclusions.

  Click Here if you Like this Comment

   1  person like this.


Reply 31 - Posted by: JediJerry, 1/4/2013 10:49:34 AM     (No. 9098267)

Ok children, here is what you do for your next science fair project.
Get a glass and fill it about half way with water. This represents the ocean. Then put in several ice cubes. They represent ice bergs. Then take a black marks a lot and draw a line on the glass of the water level.
This represents the sea level of the earth.
Then put the glass of ice water in the sun. This represents global warming. Come back in a few hours after the ice bergs melt and mark the water line. WOW! It´s still at the same level! Eureka! Whowouldathunkit!

Next rent a helicopter, buy a case of Smirnoff vodka and fly over a Hawaiian volcanoe and drop in the vodka as an offering to Goddess Pele.

That should fix the problem. Class dismissed.

  Click Here if you Like this Comment

   1  person like this.


Reply 32 - Posted by: toddh, 1/4/2013 10:57:56 AM     (No. 9098292)

Crustal deformation by glacier ice is well-known. Huge swaths of Canada - and even the land around Chicago - are still rebounding upwards from the last ice age. It´s almost certain to *influence* volcanism. What is interesting is that this study determines that the influence is in the form of a general increase, instead of an increase here and a decrease there.

And though the study´s author seems guarded, maybe skeptical, regarding AGW, now that her theory and AGW have been mentioned in the same article, anthropogenic global warming has been *linked* to increased volcanism.

  Click Here if you Like this Comment

   1  person like this.


Reply 33 - Posted by: M Stuart, 1/4/2013 11:00:02 AM     (No. 9098296)

I´ve been reading about the gigantic linked volcanoes in Iceland which caused so much damage with ash. They are well overdue, and I defy anyone to stop them when they happen.



  Click Here if you Like this Comment

    2 persons like this.


Reply 34 - Posted by: capt scurvey, 1/4/2013 11:03:58 AM     (No. 9098312)

Did The Onion buy this rag and just not tell anybody?

  Click Here if you Like this Comment

   1  person like this.


Reply 35 - Posted by: Ida Lou Pino, 1/4/2013 11:43:48 AM     (No. 9098390)

Folks, these people are NEVER going to stop - - because they´re being financed very handsomely with money stolen from you.

And the more they steal - - the more they lust to steal again.

The sea levels aren´t rising - - but the balances in these communists´ bank accounts surely are.

  Click Here if you Like this Comment

   1  person like this.


Reply 36 - Posted by: leftcoastmom, 1/4/2013 11:48:59 AM     (No. 9098402)

Tia = Idiot

  Click Here if you Like this Comment

    2 persons like this.


Reply 37 - Posted by: Eheu Fugaces, 1/4/2013 12:17:30 PM     (No. 9098446)

This Tia fool apparently hasn´t had any contact with real science since, oh, eighth grade. She has it exactly bass ackwards, of course. While it has been documented that volcanic eruptions can temporarily effect climate (vide: the Year Without a Summer in the early 1800´s), no one but a silly girl who has avoided real science and math would actually be ignorant enough to state that changes in climate cause volcanic eruptions.

What is distressing here is that there are probably several thousand school children who will be handed copies of this nonsense by their teachers, and who will go through life believing that climate change will set off volcanic eruptions.

  Click Here if you Like this Comment

    2 persons like this.


Reply 38 - Posted by: tennman, 1/4/2013 12:43:05 PM     (No. 9098483)

Sorry. I stopped reading after "the rapid rise in sea levels".

  Click Here if you Like this Comment

   1  person like this.


Reply 39 - Posted by: geoguy, 1/4/2013 1:27:10 PM     (No. 9098548)

Yea, maybe.

As a geologist I think I see the logic of what they are saying. I´m guessing the theory is that there would be continental rebound from removal of a super load caused by the melting of a mile thick glacier (rebound continues today in North America from the last Ice Age). The rebound area would have to be adjacent to a continental/ocean plate boundary where the ocean plate was then super loaded from the increased water depth (from melted ice) of 200´ to 300´. The differential pressure would cause mantle cracking at the plate boundary allowing lava to come to the surface as a volcano along these cracks.

I´m not aware of when in geologic time that glaciers occupied Costa Rica, but that would be required.

  Click Here if you Like this Comment

    2 persons like this.


Reply 40 - Posted by: varkdriver, 1/4/2013 2:41:31 PM     (No. 9098678)

#39, thanks for weighing in; good to hear from an actual geologist!

And #12, ya nailed it, first take!

  Click Here if you Like this Comment

    2 persons like this.



Post Reply   Close thread 717627




Below, you will find ...

Most Recent Articles posted by "NorthernDog"

and

Most Active Articles (last 48 hours)




Most Recent Articles posted by "NorthernDog"



A Marine´s story: Women set up
to fail USMC’s most grueling test
ABC News, by Martha Raddatz*    Original Article
Posted By: NorthernDog- 4/21/2014 11:13:10 AM     Post Reply
At a petite 5’3’’, Sage Santangelo may not look like a combat fighter at first glance. But the female second lieutenant has never let that hold her back from pursuing her dream of becoming an infantry officer in the Marine Corps. Growing up, Santangelo found she was always able to keep up with the guys and enjoyed playing hockey on all boys’ teams. But when she joined the Marines, Santangelo found the playing field changed; she was segregated into female-only training units and as a woman, was relegated to less strenuous physical training than her male counterparts. And that’s why,

Russia ´outraged´ as east Ukraine
shootout shatters Easter truce
Agence France-Presse, by Bertrand De Saisset    Original Article
Posted By: NorthernDog- 4/20/2014 5:03:49 PM     Post Reply
Slavyansk Ukraine- A deadly gunfight in a town in restive east Ukraine on Sunday shattered a fragile Easter truce, with Russia declaring it was "outraged" at the return to violence in the crisis-hit former Soviet republic. Three pro-Russian militants and one attacker were killed in a firefight at a roadblock close to the separatist-held town of Slavyansk, said a local pro-Kremlin rebel leader, Vyatcheslav Ponomarev. Vladimir, a masked 20-year-old pro-Russian rebel who was at the barricade, told AFP: "Four cars pulled up to our roadblock around 1:00am (2200 GMT Saturday). We wanted to conduct a check, and then they opened

Pipeline delay gives boost
to Obama´s political base
Reuters, by Jeff Mason and Steve Holland    Original Article
Posted By: NorthernDog- 4/20/2014 1:47:08 PM     Post Reply
Washington - The latest delay to a final decision on the Keystone XL oil pipeline will reinforce a White House strategy to energize President Barack Obama´s liberal-leaning base before fall elections in which Democrats risk losing control of the U.S. Senate. Environmentalists, worried about the project´s effect on climate change, have put enormous pressure on the president to reject the pipeline from Canada´s oil sands, staging demonstrations outside the White House and protests in states where he travels. A decision to approve it now could have prompted that vocal group, which was instrumental in electing Obama in 2008 and 2012,

Gospel story of Jesus’ resurrection a
source of deep rifts in Christian religion
Washington Post, by Kimberley Winston    Original Article
Posted By: NorthernDog- 4/19/2014 10:46:11 PM     Post Reply
“On the third day, he rose again.” That line, from the Nicene Creed, is a foundational statement of Christian belief. It declares that three days after Jesus died on the cross, he was resurrected, a glimmer of the eternal life promised to believers. It’s the heart of the Easter story in seven little words. But how that statement is interpreted is the source of some of the deepest rifts in Christianity — and a stumbling block for some Christians, and more than a few skeptics. Did Jesus literally come back from the dead in a bodily resurrection, as many traditionalist

´8THEIST´ license plate in NJ: Why
states can´t rein in the vanity plate monster
Christian Science Monitor, by Patrik Jonsson    Original Article
Posted By: NorthernDog- 4/19/2014 4:09:21 PM     Post Reply
If you can get a New Jersey vanity license plate that reads “BAPTIST,” why not one that reads “8THEIST”? That’s the question Shannon Morgan, a self-describe atheist, is asking in a lawsuit after the New Jersey department of motor vehicles denied her vanity plate application. Her main complaint is a bureaucracy deeming that “8THEIST” has connotations that offend “good taste and decency,” the bar which the state uses to judge the suitability of personalized plate messages. She also wants the state to adopt a more “viewpoint-neutral” vanity plate approval policy, since when she typed “BAPTIST” into the DMV application it

Grandma Hillary Is a
Double-Edged Sword in 2016
Time Magazine, by Haley Sweetland Edwards    Original Article
Posted By: NorthernDog- 4/19/2014 3:08:07 PM     Post Reply
When Chelsea Clinton announced Thursday that she’s pregnant, it took the media about two nanoseconds to home in on what that really means: Hillary, should she run for president in 2016, will campaign as a grandmother. (Snip) And for another, Hillary’s newfound role as grandmother isn’t necessarily a political boon. As I wrote in the Washington Monthly’s current issue, it could very easily cut both ways. After all, Hillary, who will be 68 in 2016, already runs the risk of appearing old, a vulnerability not lost on her detractors. From the Monthly: (At sixty-six, Hillary is “not particularly old for

Chef says preparing healthy Passover
seder to suit Michelle Obama
‘is a different (matzo) ball game’
New York Daily News, by Leslie Larson    Original Article
Posted By: NorthernDog- 4/17/2014 7:32:07 PM     Post Reply
Chef Vered Guttman braved the challenge of preparing a White House Passover seder in line with Michelle Obama´s healthy eating guidelines and lived to tell her story. "The traditional seder fare is hardly fresh or healthy," Guttman wrote in a post-dinner review about incorporating vegetable sides to "offset some of the Jewish carbs" like gefilte fish and matzo ball soup. And her hard work to keep it healthy paid off, as both the President and First Lady praised her quinoa-kale salad and even inquired after the recipe. Guttman, a D.C. based caterer, worked with White House executive chef Cris Comerford



Most Active Articles (last 48 hours)



´America´s royal baby´: How Chelsea´s first
child could give Hillary Clinton a boost in
the polls if she runs for president in 2016

42 replie(s)
Daily Mail (U.K.), by Jessica Jerreat    Original Article
Posted By: Desert Fox- 4/19/2014 7:12:10 PM     Post Reply
For Hillary Clinton, having her own baby grandchild to kiss on the campaign trail, could be one of the biggest boosts to her possible presidential election campaign. Although the former Secretary of State and First Lady has not said if she will run in 2016, the arrival of her first grandchild will soften her image, analysts have said. While Chelsea only revealed her pregnancy on Thursday, supporters of her mother have already started cooing over a possible baby in the White House. With the Clintons having a near-royal status in the U.S., the announcement of a new arrival due this fall has sent

Barack Obama and the politics of lies
36 replie(s)
Washington Examiner [DC], by Editorial    Original Article
Posted By: StormCnter- 4/20/2014 5:45:25 AM     Post Reply
That was quite a victory dance President Obama did Thursday while claiming Obamacare is “working” because eight million people have now supposedly signed up for the health care program. He even indulged in some less-than-subtle mockery of Republicans - and by extension the majority of Americans who have disapproved of Obamacare since before it became law. "The repeal debate is and should be over,” Obama said, taking a dig at Republicans who are “going through, you know, the stages of grief … anger and denial and all that stuff …” But a president who is viewed by most Americans as less

White House asks American parents to
monitor their children for signs of terrorism

33 replie(s)
Daily Caller, by Eric Owens    Original Article
Posted By: StormCnter- 4/19/2014 5:50:04 PM     Post Reply
In a speech earlier this week, Lisa O. Monaco, President Barack Obama’s assistant for homeland security and counterterrorism, insisted that American parents must be vigilant because their “confrontational” children could be on the verge of becoming terrorists. Monaco’s full, prepared text is available here. She presented the speech, entitled “Countering Violent Extremism and the Power of Community,” at Harvard University’s Kennedy School of Government on April 15. Monaco began her remarks by eloquently describing the lives tragically lost last year during the Boston Marathon bombings. Interestingly, the Harvard grad failed to mention the religion or the motive of brothers Dzhokhar and Tamerlan

But Seriously, Just How
Slow-Witted is John Boehner?

30 replie(s)
American Thinker, by C. Edmund Wright    Original Article
Posted By: quantumman- 4/21/2014 7:22:21 AM     Post Reply
As he moves from lobbyists to the golf course, from press conferences to the tanning bed, he remains oblivious to all that is around him. He has power, incredible power, and yet to this day he has no understanding of the election that made it so. Moreover, all around him are astonishing opportunities for him to be an historic figure -- one who could and should be the man who did more than any other single person in turning back the red tide of Obama. It’s all there for Speaker of the House, and yet John Boehner manages to miss

Stop dressing so tacky for church
27 replie(s)
CNN, by John Blake    Original Article
Posted By: StormCnter- 4/20/2014 4:40:56 AM     Post Reply
If the Rev. John DeBonville could preach a sermon to lift the souls of churchgoers across America, his message would be simple: Stop dressing so tacky for church. DeBonville has heard about the “come as you are” approach to dressing down for Sunday service, but he says the Sabbath is getting too sloppy. When he scans the pews of churches, DeBonville sees rows of people dressed in their Sunday worst. They saunter into church in baggy shorts, flip-flop sandals, tennis shoes and grubby T-shirts. Some even slide into the pews carrying coffee in plastic foam containers as if they’re going to Starbucks. “It’s like

Wasserman-Schultz: Midterm Election
´Absolutely Not´ A Referendum on Obama

23 replie(s)
Cybercast News Service, by Susan Jones    Original Article
Posted By: Toledo- 4/21/2014 8:22:28 AM     Post Reply
"No, absolutely not," the November midterm election is not a referendum on President Obama and his policies, Democrat Party Chair Rep. Debbie Wasserman Schultz (D-Fla.) told NBC´s "Meet the Press" on Sunday. "[T]hese elections, particularly the Senate elections, are referendums on the candidates running," she said. Asked about vulnerable Democrats who have criticized President Obama´s flawed healthcare law, Wasserman Schultz said they are running their own race. "They have to talk about and focus on the issues that are important to their constituents. And what´s also true is, if you look at the success rate and the track record of

The Growing Financial Disaster of Obamacare
22 replie(s)
Power Line, by John Hinderaker    Original Article
Posted By: StormCnter- 4/19/2014 5:55:20 PM     Post Reply
President Obama asserts that 8 million people have signed up for Obamacare, as though that were something to be proud of. In fact, Obamacare has always been a fiasco from a fiscal perspective–a black hole of subsidies and expanded Medicaid, with largely fictitious mechanisms in place to pay for it. As the number of subsidized participants grows, the disaster gets worse. Charles Blahous explains: Our national discussion…is missing the truly significant story here; what is unfolding before our eyes is a colossal fiscal disaster, poised to haunt legislators and taxpayers for decades to come. It is quite possible that the ACA is


Post Reply   Close thread 717627





Home Page | Latest Posts | Links | Must Reads | Update Profile | RSS | Contribute | Register | Rules & FAQs
Privacy Policy | Search | Post | Contact | Logout | Forgot Password | Search Using Google


© 2014 Lucianne.com Media Inc.

~~~c~~~